Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in applications including stationary power, portable power, and transportation. Hydrogen has the highest energy per mass of any fuel; however, its low ambient temperature density results in a low energy per unit volume, therefore requiring the development of advanced storage methods that have potential for higher energy density.
Hydrogen can be stored physically as either a gas or a liquid. Storage of hydrogen as a gas typically requires high-pressure tanks (350–700 bar [5,000–10,000 psi] tank pressure). Storage of hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure is −252.8°C. Hydrogen can also be stored on the surfaces of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).
At present, there are three main paths for global hydrogen storage: high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage, low-temperature liquid hydrogen storage, and solid-state hydrogen storage (physical adsorption and chemical hydride).
The development of high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage has a long history and has an absolute market share in China. There are mainly two types of high-pressure gas cylinder trailers and pipeline transportation. my country mainly uses high-pressure gas cylinders with a hydrogen storage pressure of 20 MPa. However, the 50 MPa technology has been applied in foreign countries in recent years. This technology has obvious advantages in hydrogen storage. In terms of pipeline transportation, the mileage in developing countries is generally only limited. Up to 100 kilometers, compared with the world's 5,000 kilometers of hydrogen pipelines, the mileage is very small, and there is still a large room for development.
However, with the rise of low-temperature liquid hydrogen storage and transportation technology in recent years, its proportion has been in a downward trend; this technology has been developed in foreign regions for a period of time, and the effect of large-scale cost reduction has been achieved. One-twentieth, the country has also been developing rapidly in recent years, and a large number of related companies have emerged. Once the technology is implemented and the cost is reduced, the future will also usher in rapid development.
The other two technologies, solid hydrogen storage and transportation and liquid organic hydrogen storage and transportation are still in the demonstration stage and have not yet been applied on a large scale. Among them, the solid materials of solid-state hydrogen storage and transportation technology have many research directions, such as metal hydrides, nanomaterials, carbonaceous hydrogen storage materials, coordination hydride hydrogen storage, etc. Among them, the current landing products are mainly metal hydride materials, and the main products are The application is fuel cell vehicles. Organic liquid hydrogen storage can be completed with related petroleum equipment, and has a good hydrogen storage capacity, and there is also a lot of room for development in the future.
The construction of fuel cell vehicles and related supporting facilities is the main driving force for the development of the hydrogen storage and transportation industry. Backed with promising demand of hydrogen fuel, more investors will pay attention to the hydrogen storage industry. In 2020, the global hydrogen storage and transportation technology market reached 935.15 million U.S. dollars and is expected to reach 3590.39 million U.S. dollars in 2027, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.53%.
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